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ISSN : 2093-5145(Print)
ISSN : 2288-0232(Online)
Journal of the Korean Society for Advanced Composite Structures Vol.10 No.6 pp.28-33
DOI : https://doi.org/10.11004/kosacs.2019.10.6.028

Forced Vibrations of SWCNT Reinforced Laminated Composite Cylindrical Shells for an Enhanced Seismic Performance

Ashish Maharjan1,Hwang Ji-Gwang2,Lee Sang-Youl3
1Master Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Andong National University, Andong, Korea
2Ph.D. Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Andong National University, Andong, Korea
3Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Andong National University, Andong, Korea
Corresponding author: Lee, Sang-Youl Department of Civil Engineering, Andong National University, 1375 Gyeongdong-ro, Andong, Gyoungsangbuk-do, 760-749, Korea. Tel: +82-54-820-5847 Fax: +82-54-820-6255, E-mail: lsy@anu.ac.kr
November 18, 2019 November 26, 2019 November 28, 2019

Abstract


This paper presents the dynamic responses of carbon nanotubes/fiber/polymer composite (CNTFPC) shell. The composite is three-phase composed of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), E-glass fiber and epoxy resin. The effective material properties are estimated using the multi-scale formulation. The dynamic responses for different carbon nanotube weight ratios, layup angles, curvatures, and central cutouts were investigated using the finite element program Abaqus and the interactions were examined in detail. The study shows the importance of these aspects for reducing the deflection due to dynamic loading on the composite shell.



내진성능 향상을 위한 SWCNT로 보강된 적층 복합 원통형 쉘의 강제 진동 특성

Ashish Maharjan1,황지광2,이상열3
안동대학교 토목공학과 석사과정1, 안동대학교 토목공학과 박사과정2, 안동대학교 토목공학과 부교수3

초록


본 연구는 탄소나노튜브/보강섬유/폴리머 복합 쉘에 대한 동적응답을 다루었다. 단일벽 탄소나노튜브, 유리섬유 및 에 폭시 레진으로 구성된 3단계 복합구조이며, 유효 물성값은 멀티스케일 해석을 통하여 산정하였다. 유한요소 프로그램인 ABAQUS를 적용하여 다양한 탄소나노튜브 함유비율, 적층각도, 곡률 및 중앙 개구부의 다양한 변화에 대한 동적응답 및 상호 작용을 분석하였다. 본 연구는 원통형 복합쉘의 동적 하중에 의한 처짐을 감소시킬 수 있는 변수들의 중요성을 보여주었다.



    1. Introduction

    Carbon nanotubes have been researched heavily for a variety of unique uses. Today, it is used in structural stiffness, creating vantablack, electronic devices, boosting solar energy, etc. Due to its excellent mechanical properties, it is used for reinforcing composites and many researchers have been paying attention to understand the behavior of CNT-reinforced composites. Ahmed et al. (2013) dealt with the static and dynamic analysis of composite laminated plate (Graphite/Epoxy composite plate). The static analysis is related to the maximum deflection while the dynamic analysis is related to the natural frequency of the plate. Sahu and Dutta (2002) performed the dynamic stability of curved panels with cutouts. Mallikarjuna (1988) studied the dynamics of laminated composite plates with a higherorder theory and finite element discretization. Analysis of laminated CNT-reinforced plates, in which the CNT distribution is UD, FG-V, FG-O, and FG-X, using the element-free kp-Ritz method is presented by Lei et al. (2016).

    Most of the studies performed are based on twophase composites. As CNT is still expensive, it is not practical to use it in large quantities. Therefore, a third phase, carbon fiber or e-glass fiber, can be added to the mix for the production cost efficiency of the composite. In the present work, the multi-scale formulation is applied, which includes the Halpin-Tsai model as well as micromechanical approaches (Lee, 2018), for determining the effective material properties of the three-phase composite (CNTFPC). The study focuses on dynamic responses of CNTFPC shell for different CNT weight ratios, layup angles, curvatures of the shell and central cutout sizes and the interactions of the responses are studied.

    2. Multiscale formulation

    In the multiscale formulation, initially, the matrix and CNT are combined forming the two-phase composite called carbon-nanotube reinforced composite (CNTRC). The three-phase composite (CNTFPC) is formed by combining CNTRC with carbon-fiber or e-glass fiber (Han et al., 2007;Zuo et al., 2013). For the elastic properties of CNTFPC, the Halpin-Tsai equation and micro-mechanical approaches (Lee, 2018) are used. The Young’s modulus of CNTRC using Halpin-Tsai equation can be calculated by:

    E c n r = E r e [ 3 8 ( 1 + 2 ( l c n t / d c n t ) γ d l V c n t 1 γ d l V c n t ) + 5 8 ( 1 + 2 γ d d V c n t 1 γ d d V c n t ) ]
    (1)

    where,

    γ d d = ( E 11 c n t / E r e ) ( d c n t / 4 t c n t ) ( E 11 c n t / E r e ) + ( d c n t / 2 t c n t ) , γ d l = ( E 11 c n t / E r e ) ( d c n t / 4 t c n t ) ( E 11 c n t / E r e ) + ( l c n t / 2 t c n t )
    (2)

    in which, Ecnr , Ere and E 11 c n t represent Young’s modulus of CNTRC, resin matrix and CNT, and lcnt, dcnt and tcnt denote the length, diameter and thickness of CNT respectively. The longitudinal tensile modulus of CNTFPC is calculated using the following formula:

    E 11 = E f V f + E c n r ( 1 V f )
    (3)

    Using the semi-empirical relation from the Halpin- Tsai model, E22, G12, ν12, can be calculated as:

    Φ f ( E 22 , G 12 , ν 12 ) Φ c n r ( E c n r , G c n r , ν c n r ) = 1 + χ η V f 1 η V f
    (4)

    η = Φ f ( E 22 , G 12 , ν 12 ) / Φ c n r ( E c n r , G c n r , ν c n r ) 1 Φ f ( E 22 , G 12 , ν 12 ) / Φ c n r ( E c n r , G c n r , ν c n r ) + χ
    (5)

    where, Φ, Φcnr and Φf correspond to E22, G12 and ν12 denoting the modulus of CNTFPC, Ecnr , Gcnr and νcnr denoting the modulus of CNTRC and Ef, Gf and νf denoting the modulus of fiber respectively. For transverse loading, the reinforcing efficiency factor (χ) can be seen in Eq. (4) and Eq. (5) which depends on the cross section of the fiber and geometry of packing. Generally, the value of χ is between 1 and 2. In this study, as the fibers are circular and arranged in square array, the value of χ is taken as 2. Using Eq. (4) and Eq. (5), E22 can be expressed as:

    E 22 = E c n r 1 + χ η V f 1 η V f , η = E f E c n r E f χ E c n r
    (6)

    If the volume fraction of the fiber (Vf) is greater than 0.5, the estimated value of G12 is lower than the actual value. In this case, we use the equation which is derived experimentally by Hewitt and Malherbe (1970) for χ :

    χ = 1 + 40 ( V f ) 10
    (7)

    3. Numerical Simulation

    In finite element analysis, when the model is damaged due to loading, the stiffness of the damaged model is mostly represented using a reduced stiffness matrix. The reduced stiffness matrix is a product of the sum of all the stiffness matrices of the elements and the stiffness reduction factor κ(n) (Au et al., 2003;Mares and Surace, 1996):

    C ˜ ( n ) = κ ( n ) C ( n )
    (8)

    where, C ˜ ( n ) and C(n) denote the stiffnesses in damaged and undamaged state. The element stiffness matrix in damaged state represented using local coordinates is as follows:

    K ˜ ( n ) = κ ( n ) V B ( e ) T C ˜ ( n ) B ( e ) d V
    (9)

    where, B denotes the displacement differentiation matrix of element e. General equation of motion of a system subjected to dynamic loading is given by:

    m u ¨ + c u ˙ + k u = p ( t )
    (10)

    where, u ¨ , u ˙ and u denote the acceleration, velocity and displacement, m, c and k denote the mass, viscous damping and stiffness of the system and p(t) is the dynamic load. In our case, the damping can be removed. Newmark further extended the equation of motion in which the total time is divided into equal time intervals Δt (Bathe, 1996). The time function f(t) at time t=nΔt is denoted by:

    f ( t ) = f ( n Δ t ) = f ( n ) , n = 0 , ..... , N
    (11)

    The displacement solution for time t=(n+1)Δt of the damaged structure is given by:

    u [ n + 1 ] = [ f ^ [ n + 1 ] + M ( λ 0 u [ n ] + λ 2 u ˙ [ n ] + λ 3 u ¨ [ n ] ) ] [ K ^ + λ 0 M ] 1
    (12)

    where, f ^ represents the load at time t=(n+1)Δt, K ^ is triangularized system stiffness matrix and λi(i=0, 2, 3) are the time integration constants at time t. The solution of velocity and acceleration can also be found using Newmark’s Method.

    4. Verification

    The model is a square plate consisting of three layers (0˚/90˚/0˚) with all the sides clamped subjected to a dynamic load of qo=105 N/m2. The properties of the laminated plate: a=b=0.25m, h=5cm, ρ=800 kg/m3, E2= 21×109 N/m2, E1/E2=25, ν=0.25 and G12=G13=G23= 0.5E2. The modeling was done in the Abaqus program. The graph, shown in Fig. 1, is a comparison with Ref. Reddy, (1983), Mallikarjuna, (1988) and Zhang and Xiao, (2017) which shows sufficient accuracy of the procedure followed in the Abaqus program.

    5. Numerical examples

    In the parametric studies, the dynamic characteristics are studied between different SWCNT weight ratios, curvatures, layup angles, and central cutout sizes. The geometric properties of the model are: a=b=1m, thickness=10mm. The boundary condition is shown in Fig. 2. The model varies from flat to different radii: 0.8m, 0.55m, 0.4m and 0.32m. The properties of the individual materials used in the composites are listed in Table 1 and the resulting material properties of CNTFPC for different SWCNT weight ratios using the multiscale formulation are listed in Table 2. Poisson’s ratio is 0.233. The loading point and the displacement measurement point are shown in Fig. 3 for CNT weight ratio, curvature, and layup angle cases, while for the central cutout case, it is shown in Fig. 8 and the loads applied are 100,000N and 1.0N respectively.

    In Fig. 4, we considered a two-layered (0˚/90˚) composite shell with radius 0.8m having SWCNT weight ratios increasing till 8% from none. It is seen that the deflection decreases with the increase in the SWCNT weight ratio. This shows that there is an increase in stiffness with the increase in the SWCNT weight ratio. The decrease in the deflection is significantly higher when the weight ratio is increased till 2% and less significant as the weight ratio increases further. For this reason, as CNT is expensive, the addition of CNT more than 2% is clearly not beneficial.

    Fig. 5 shows the comparison of two-layered (0˚/90˚) composite shell of the SWCNT weight ratio of 1% with different curvature radii. It is evident that the deflection decreases with the increase in curvature. This is due to the increment of membrane force with the increase of curvature. This concludes that there is increase in stiffness with more curvature resulting in less deflection.

    Besides, we also studied the influence of different layup angles on the shell with the same thickness. Fig. 6 is the plot of a cylindrical shell of radius 0.8m and SWCNT weight ratio 0% with different layup angles: [0˚/90˚], [0˚/90˚/90˚/0˚], [0˚/90˚/0˚/90˚], [45˚/-45˚], [45˚ /-45˚/45˚/-45˚] and [45˚/-45˚/-45˚/45˚]. Comparing six different layup angles, [0˚/90˚/90˚/0˚] shows the least deflection concluding that the layup angle is the stiffest among the six layup angles.

    The dynamic responses of the composite plate with 8% SWCNT weight ratio for different central cutout sizes were also examined. The mass of the shell is reduced by 1%, 4%, 16% and 36% as shown in Fig. 7. The comparison graph, in Fig. 9, shows that the deflection of 36% cutout is maximum and of 16% is also significant. However, the deflections for the lower sized cutout are almost the same as the composite plate with no cutout. As the deflection is related to the stiffness as well as the mass of the shell which changes with the cutout size, there are less significant changes till 4% cutout and dramatic changes with bigger cutout sizes. We can see that for the cutout size equal to or higher than 16%, the dynamic response changes drastically which means that it is not desirable to use such sizes with the parameters used in the study.

    6. Conclusion

    The results of the study can be summarized as follows:

    • (1) The CNT reinforcement in the laminated composite shell structure increases the stiffness.

    • (2) As the curvature increases, the membrane force increases resulting in lower deflection.

    • (3) Using less than 2% CNT would be beneficial as no dramatic changes occur in deflection when more CNT is added.

    • (4) 0˚/90˚/90˚/0˚ layup angle is the stiffest among the six different layup angles used in the study.

    • (5) In this case of our study, cutout size higher than or equal to 16% is not desirable.

    In this study, we focused on the linear dynamic loading of the composite shell but various other stresses also influence the structures from the practical viewpoint. The structures are agitated by non-linear dynamic loads such as earthquake loads and wind loads. Besides, due to the temperature difference, thermal stresses also occur on the structures. For this reason, non-linear dynamic analysis and heat transfer analysis should be considered in future work.

    감사의 글

    본 연구는 한국연구재단 기초연구사업의 지원을 받아 수행된 연구(No.2018R1D1A1B07050080)임.

    Figure

    KOSACS-10-6-28_F1.gif
    Comparison of three-layered (0゚/90゚/0゚) square laminated plate (CCCC) with Ref. Reddy, 1983;Mallikarjuna, 1988;Zhang and Xiao, 2017
    KOSACS-10-6-28_F2.gif
    Boundary condition of composite shell.
    KOSACS-10-6-28_F3.gif
    Loading point and displacement measurement point for CNT weight ratio, curvature, and layup angle cases
    KOSACS-10-6-28_F4.gif
    Deflection vs time for a two-layered (0゚/90゚) composite cylindrical shell of radius 0.8m with different SWCNT weight ratios
    KOSACS-10-6-28_F5.gif
    Deflection vs time for a two-layered (0゚/90゚) composite shell of SWCNT weight ratio 1% with different curvature radii
    KOSACS-10-6-28_F6.gif
    Deflection vs time for the composite cylindrical shell of radius 0.8m and SWCNT weight ratio 0% with different layup angles
    KOSACS-10-6-28_F7.gif
    Shells with central cutout
    KOSACS-10-6-28_F8.gif
    Loading point and displacement measurement point for central cutout case
    KOSACS-10-6-28_F9.gif
    Deflection vs time for composite plate of SWCNT weight ratio 8% with different central cutout sizes

    Table

    Material properties of the materials used
    Material properties of CNTFPC for different CNT weight ratios using Multiscale Formulation

    Reference

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