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ISSN : 2093-5145(Print)
ISSN : 2288-0232(Online)
Journal of the Korean Society for Advanced Composite Structures Vol.11 No.5 pp.34-45
DOI : https://doi.org/10.11004/kosacs.2020.11.5.034

Structural Performance of Curtain Wall Using Separate Interstory Modules and Three-Axis Mobile Fasteners

Heon-Seok Lee1, Myung-Hwan Oh2, Woo-Suk Kim3
1Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Architectural Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi, Korea
2Senior Research Engineer, Energy Division Demonstration Test Center, KCL, Chungnam, Korea
3Associate Professor, Department of Architecture Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi, Korea

본 논문에 대한 토의를 2020년 11월 30일까지 학회로 보내주시면 2020년 12월호에 토론결과를 게재하겠습니다.


Corresponding author:Kim, Woo-Suk School of Architecture, Kumoh National Institute of Technology 61 Daehak-ro, Gumi, Gyungbuk 39177, Korea Tel: +82-54-478-7591, Fax: +82-54-478-7609 E-mail: kimw@kumoh.ac.kr
September 29, 2020 October 15, 2020 October 15, 2020

Abstract


The occurrence of earthquakes has been increasing globally, causing a variety of damage to high-rise buildings. In particular, the horizontal load applied to high-rise buildings can cause secondary damage, such as glass facade detachment, owing to the damage to the external panels as well as the main structural elements of the structure. Considering the severity of these issues, it is necessary to develop measures to prevent secondary damage to nonstructural elements. In this study, structural performance was examined and vulnerabilities were derived through experiments and numerical analysis on external panels of an existing building. To solve the identified problems, finite element analysis was conducted for a curtain wall module consisting of an interstory separate curtain wall module and three-axis mobile fasteners. The results of the numerical analysis confirmed that the structural stability was comparable to that of the existing curtain wall.



층간 분리형 모듈과 3축 이동형 패스너 활용 커튼월의 구조적 성능 연구

이 헌석1, 오 명환2, 김 우석3
1금오공과대학교 건축공학과 박사수료
2(재)한국건설생활환경시험연구원 에너지본부 옥외실증센터 선임연구원
3금오공과대학교 건축학부 부교수

초록


최근 전 세계적으로 지진 발생빈도가 급증하면서 초고층 건축물에 다양한 피해가 발생하고 있다. 특히 고층 건물에 가해지는 수평하중이 구조물의 주요 구조요소 뿐만 아니라 외부 패널의 파손으로 유리 외장재가 낙하하는 등 2차 피해가 발생 할 수 있다. 이러한 문제의 심각성을 고려하여 비구조 요소에 대한 2차 손상 방지 방안을 마련하는 것이 필요하다. 본 연구에서 는 기존 건축물 외부 패널이 가진 문제점에 대하여 실대형 시험과 유한요소 해석을 토대로 구조적 성능을 분석하고 취약부를 도출하였으며, 이를 보완하기 위해 층간 분리형 커튼월 모듈과 이동형 패스너를 적용한 커튼월 모듈에 대한 유한요소해석을 수 행하였다. 해석결과를 바탕으로 기존 커튼월과 비교시 구조적 안정성을 확보할 수 있는 것으로 확인되었다.



    Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport
    20CTAP-C153174-02

    1. INTRODUCTION

    Recently high-rise and large buildings have been developed to increase the space efficiency of cities. As the necessity for high-rise buildings increases, securing structural stability against horizontal loads of structures is essential. Almost all of the exterior materials of skyscrapers consist of a glass facade. However, the relevant laws and standards for glass facades focus on wind pressure and thermal insulation performance. There are very little research on disasters such as earthquakes. In particular, the fallout of the curtain wall glass facade and connection members damaged by the horizontal load caused by the earthquake causes secondary damage to people and property(Cho and Hong, 2006;Lee et al., 2016).

    Unlike the structural design of the main structural members, damage to the curtain wall structure is not easy to consider in the structural performance of the exterior material in the design stage against horizontal loads caused by earthquakes(Kim, 1996;Lee, 2003;Lee et al., 2010;Yim et al., 2010;Kwak et al., 2016;Lee et al., 2016;Oh and Park, 2018). Since the exterior material is generally formed into a one-piece structure through pre-fabricated members, complex displacements occur due to various factors caused by external forces generated at the joints between members.

    Earthquakes have been increasing in frequency worldwide, and domestic earthquakes have increased rapidly since 2016, causing more than 200 earthquakes every year (Lee, 2014;KMA, 2016).

    In accordance with the trend of earthquake occurrence, a seismic building design is being reinforced in Korea, and KBC 2016 established seismic design standards for nonstructural building elements.

    Structural performance and construction methods for exterior materials such as curtain walls are being studied (Cho, 2008;Jeon and Kim, 2010;Yim et al., 2010;Lee, 2011;Yoon and Ryu, 2011;Min et al., 2012;Chang and Park, 2014;Kwak et al., 2017;Kwon et al., 2019). but there are not many experimental or analytical studies on earthquakes, and major studies to evaluate structural performance of non-structural materials are mainly for wind load and damage evaluation (Ham and Kim, 2004;Cho and Hong, 2006;Cho et al., 2006;Lee et al., 2010;Shim et al., 2013). Currently, there are no seismic performance curtain wall products in Korea.

    Existing curtain walls are installed integrally with invaded hardware installed on the structure of a building and through anchor bolts or welding. As described above, the integrated exterior material cannot absorb the displacement, and when the structure is deformed, damage such as acupressure breakage and bolt dropout may occur, and this may cause serious damage to the exterior material and a fallout. In order to reinforce the seismic performance of the curtain wall, studies as shown in Table 1 are being conducted, and a finite element analysis studies are being conducted to verify the structural performance of the seismic curtain wall (Bârnaure and Voiculescu, 2013;Ber et al., 2016;Caterino et al., 2017;Cwyl et al., 2018).

    Therefore, in this study, the behavior of the existing stick-type curtain wall was analyzed to derive the vulnerable part and to solve the problem such as a fallout or breakage of external members due to displacement. To solve this problem, this study has been conducted to develop a three-axis mobile fastener using a linear guide consisting of a separate interlayer curtain wall module, rail, and movable clip in order to cope with the three-axis displacement during an earthquake load. Applies to buildings. To this end, the vulnerability of the curtain wall system was identified through a seismic performance test on the existing stick-type curtain wall, and the structural performance was evaluated through finite element analysis of the curtain wall system using the commercial program ABAQUS, and the seismic performance was confirmed.

    2. EXPERIMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF SEISMIC LATERAL BEHAVIOR FOR STICK CURTAIN WALLS

    2.1 Experimental Setup and Equipment

    This experiment was conducted to examine the vulnerabilities of the existing curtain wall system in the case of an earthquake. The AAMA 501.6 test standard is a dynamic seismic test standard for curtain walls and windows, but there is no test equipment in Korea that satisfies the standard. Therefore, in this study, a static seismic performance evaluation based on the AAMA 501.4 standard was conducted. Fig. 1 shows the structure of the test body for a seismic performance evaluation. The outline of the members used in the experiment is shown in Table 2.

    2.2 Experimental Method

    In the test method, as shown in Fig. 2, the beam and exterior were connected, and the beams located at the upper and lower parts were firmly fixed to the outer frame, and only the middle beam was applied with static displacement in the horizontal direction by using a 20 ton hydraulic cylinder and pump. The static seismic performance evaluation is shown in Fig. 3 The displacement was divided into four stages, and three cycles for each grade were applied. All experiments were conducted in accordance with the AAMA 501.4 standard summarized in Table 3.

    2.3 Experimental Results

    As a result of the experiment, some sections of the weather sealant installed inside and outside of the curtain wall began to break from 54mm of displacement, and the broken section and range were extended to 72mm of displacement. At 150mm, the target displacement used in this study confirmed that the glass was broken with a fallout occurring owing to the residual deformation after weather sealant breakage. The main weak points of the curtain wall confirmed through the experiment are shown in Fig. 4 and summarized in Table 4.

    3. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF CURTAIN WALL STICK SYSTEM

    The purpose of the finite element analysis was to develop accurate numerical models of various experimentally investigated curtain wall elements. The focus was on the global behavior and the response under the influence of external forces.

    3.1 Finite Element Modeling of Curtain Wall

    The ABAQUS program was used to build and calculate finite element models of the curtain walls. To predict the seismic behavior of the stick curtain walls, a numerical model was developed for each wall. FE modeling was conducted at the same 1:1 scale as the test body used to determine the seismic performance. In addition, to compare the behavior and seismic performance of the existing curtain wall with the curtain wall developed in this study, a single frame of among the entire frame was modeled.

    The material properties used in the numerical analysis are presented in Table 5, where the material properties of rubber were used as the calculated value by inputting the test data. The details of the FE modeling are shown in Fig. 5.

    It was assumed that the behavior of all materials was limited to the elastic range. Glass can be characterized as a brittle material, and once the deformation state reaches its limit, the material breaks. In this case, the stress level in aluminum is definitely below the material strength and no ductile deformation occurs. For this reason, using only the theory of elasticity seems reasonable. The curtain wall response was obtained by conducting a non-linear static (pushover) analysis under displacement control. An increasing horizontal displacement was applied to the mullion at the connection with the intermediate beam of the principal structure, and the interstory drift was calculated.

    Boundary conditions for existing curtain walls were applied by restraining the vertical and horizontal displacements of the nodes located at the lower and upper edges of the model (part of the aluminum profile).

    In addition, the boundary conditions for the single frame model were applied by restraining the vertical and horizontal displacements of the nodes located in the lower slab of the model.

    The load on the entire frame of the existing curtain wall was set to connect the beam and exterior material in the same way as the curtain wall test conditions, and to apply a static displacement load in the horizontal (X-axis) direction to the beam located in the middle, and a maximum displacement of 150mm was applied.

    To compare the seismic performance of the existing curtain wall and the curtain wall developed in this study, the load on a single frame was set to apply a 50mm displacement along the three axes (X-, Y-, and Z-axes). The aluminum frame and slab were fixed by fasteners. Afterwards, a lateral static displacement was applied to the upper slab.

    3.2 Results of Finite Element Analysis for Existing Curtain Wall

    As a result of examining the deformation of the entire frame after applying a displacement to the existing curtain wall, as the beam located at the center was moved using a loading displacement, as shown in Fig. 6, the largest deformation and distortion occurred in the aluminum frame connected to the fastener. As a result of a finite element analysis, there is a large deformation at the edges of the fastener connection parts, upper and lower connection parts by expansion joints, and connection parts between the members; in addition, stress concentrations are observed. In particular, a problem in which a gasket, which is a super-elastic body that restrains the glass facade, is dropped from the frame while being twisted, was found. As a result, there is a possibility that the glass facade may be broken and fall out of the frame.

    Examining the weak points of the existing curtain wall according to the numerical analysis showed similar results as the weak part confirmed by the experiment as a whole. The weak points derived for each member of the existing curtain wall according to the finite element analysis results are summarized in Table 6, and the shape is shown in Fig. 7.

    The Von Mises stress distribution according to the finite element analysis in the X, Y, Z-axis directions of the existing single curtain wall frame is shown in Figs 8-10. As a result of the analysis, it was confirmed that the stress was concentrated at the junction between the edge members of the frame surrounding the glass in all axial directions. As the stress was concentrated, it was confirmed that the backup foam and gasket, which are superelastic materials, lose the strength to resist the stress, resulting in large deformation and leading to local fallout.

    3.3 Seismic Curtain Wall Design Using Interstory Separation and Mobile Fastener

    This c hapter d escribes f asteners d esigned t o c ope w ith three-axis (X-, Y-, and Z-axes) dynamic seismic waves. By applying a separate interstory fastener to cope with Y-axis s eismic w aves a nd a m obile f astener t o c ope with X- and Z-axis seismic waves, the foregoing weak points of the existing curtain wall are reinforced. The outline of the members used in the analysis is shown in Table 7.

    As shown in Fig. 11, a separate interstory curtain wall module is applied so that there is no constrained part between the upper and lower frames, and the upper and lower frames behave separately, so when displacement occurs in the Y-axis direction, stress is not concentrated and buckling does not occur.

    As shown in Figure 12, when displacement occurs in the X-axis and Z-axis directions by applying a mobile fastener, the moving clip of the linear guide moves in the direction in which the displacement occurs on the rail, so that the stress is not transmitted.

    3.4 Results of Finite Element Analysis for Three-Axis Mobile Curtain Wall

    After applying the curtain wall module technology capable of responding to the Three-axis displacement, the effectiveness of the existing curtain wall module was verified by analyzing the finite element analysis results. The Von Mises stress distribution of each member with a 50mm displacement is applied to the X-, Y-, and Z-axes, as shown in Figs. 13-15.

    To confirm the stress distribution and weak points directly transmitted to the existing curtain wall system and mobile curtain wall system, only a single frame was separated from the entire frame and carried out to finite element analysis was performed. The finite element analysis results for the X-, Y-, and Z-axis directions of the existing curtain wall and the mobile curtain wall are compared, as shown in Figs. 1618. The peak stress and the occurrence point of the peak stress at the time of displacement load for each axial direction are summarized in Table 8.

    As a result of the finite element analysis, the stress on the mobile curtain wall was significantly reduced compared to the existing curtain wall, except for the Z-axis. Because the existing curtain wall model has a monolithic structure when the displacement load is applied, it cannot resist the displacement load, thus transmitting the stress to the exterior member as is, and the stress gradually increases as the displacement load increases. By contrast, the mobile curtain wall module absorbs and distributes the stress applied to the exterior member by controlling the displacement load transmitted in the X- and Z-axis directions, confirming that the peak stress was confirmed to be significantly lower at 3.38 and 1.2MPa, respectively.

    The peak stresses of the two types of curtain walls under displacement loading in the Z-axis direction were found to show similar values. However, because the mobile curtain wall module has a separate interstory structure between the upper and lower frames, and a direct stress is not applied to the exterior member, the breakage of a specific member does not occur.

    By applying the displacement absorbing performance described in this paper through the analysis of the curtain wall behavior and stress distribution according to the above finite element analysis results, even if the displacement load was applied to the structure, the stress transmitted to the exterior member was completely distributed, thus completely solving the problem of the existing curtain wall, and the effectiveness of the seismic performance improvement of the curtain wall was verified.

    4. CONCLUSION

    In this paper, vulnerabilities were derived after examining the structural performance when a horizontal load occurred on the existing curtain wall. To make up for these problems, a separate interstory module and a mobile fastener with displacement absorbing ability were applied to improve seismic performance and verified its validity. The conclusions drawn are as follows:

    • 1) The results of examining the weak points of the existing curtain wall modules according to the experimental test and numerical analysis were similar, and the stress was concentrated with large deformations at the edges of the fastener connection parts, upper and lower connection parts by the expansion joints, and the connection parts between the members. In particular, it was found that the gasket, which is a super-elastic body that restrains the glass facade, is dropped from the frame while being twisted. As a result, there is a possibility that the glass facade may be broken and fall out of the frame.

    • 2) The results of the two types of curtain walls were compared through a finite element analysis using the Von Mises method. The peak stresses of the existing curtain wall were 405MPa in the X-axis, 460.5MPa in the Y-axis, and 2,486MPa in the Z-axis. By contrast, the peak stresses of the curtain wall using the displacement absorbing performance achieved in this study is 3.38MPa in the X-axis, 455.5MPa in the Y-axis, and 1.2MPa in the Z-axis, which is significantly lower. In the Y-axis direction, the peak stresses of the two curtain wall types are calculated similarly, but the curtain wall developed in this study has a separate interstory structure, i.e., the upper and lower frames move separately, and thus a large stress is not transmitted to the exterior member. Therefore, it does not cause a breakage of the members.

    • 3) By applying the displacement absorbing performance described in this paper through an analysis of the curtain wall behavior and stress distribution according to the above finite element analysis results, even if the displacement load is applied to the structure, the stress transmitted to the exterior member is completely distributed, thus completely solving the problem of the existing curtain wall, and verifying the effectiveness of the seismic performance improvement of the curtain wall.

    • 4) In a future study, experiments will be carried out by constructing experimental equipment that can verify the structural performance in the three-axis directions, and it will be necessary to verify the validity of the finite element analysis results through a comparison with the numerical analysis results.

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    The authors thank the Infrastructure and Transportation Technology Promotion Research Program funded by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport of the Korean government for funding this work under the grant [code# 20CTAP-C153174-02].

    Figure

    KOSACS-11-5-34_F1.gif
    Elevation and Cross Section of Curtain Wall
    KOSACS-11-5-34_F2.gif
    Seismic Performance Evaluation Method Based on AAMA 501.4 Standard
    KOSACS-11-5-34_F3.gif
    Four Levels of Displacement Based on Seismic Classification
    KOSACS-11-5-34_F4.gif
    Derivation of the Main Weak Points of Curtain Wall
    KOSACS-11-5-34_F5.gif
    Existing Curtain Wall Modeling Detail
    KOSACS-11-5-34_F6.gif
    Deformed Shape of the Existing Curtain Wall
    KOSACS-11-5-34_F7.gif
    Vulnerabilities of the Existing Curtain Wall
    KOSACS-11-5-34_F8.gif
    Von Mises Stress Distribution for X-axis Direction of Existing Single Curtain Wall Frame
    KOSACS-11-5-34_F9.gif
    Von Mises Stress Distribution for Y-axis Direction of Existing Single Curtain Wall Frame
    KOSACS-11-5-34_F10.gif
    Von Mises Stress Distribution for Z-axis Direction of Existing Single Curtain Wall Frame
    KOSACS-11-5-34_F11.gif
    Principle of Displacement Absorbing Using Interstory Separate Curtain Wall Module
    KOSACS-11-5-34_F12.gif
    Principle of Displacement Absorbing Using Mobile Fastener
    KOSACS-11-5-34_F13.gif
    Von Mises Stress Distribution for X-axis Direction of Mobile Curtain Wall
    KOSACS-11-5-34_F14.gif
    Von Mises Stress Distribution for Y-axis Direction of Mobile Curtain Wall
    KOSACS-11-5-34_F15.gif
    Von Mises Stress Distribution for Z-axis Direction of Mobile Curtain Wall
    KOSACS-11-5-34_F16.gif
    Comparison of Von Mises Stress Distributions of Existing Curtain Walls and Mobile Curtain Walls by X-axis Direction Displacement
    KOSACS-11-5-34_F17.gif
    Comparison of Von Mises Stress Distributions of Existing Curtain Walls and Mobile Curtain Walls by Y-axis Direction Displacement
    KOSACS-11-5-34_F18.gif
    Comparison of Von Mises Stress Distributions of E xisting Curtain Walls a nd Mobile C urtain W alls by Z-axis Direction Displacement

    Table

    Measures to Improve the Seismic Performance of Curtain Walls
    Overview of Curtain Wall Member
    Curtain Wall Test Procedure according to AAMA 501.4 Standard
    The Results of Seismic Performance Evaluation for Curtain Wall
    Material Properties for FE Modeling (ABAQUS)
    Summary of Vulnerabilities for Existing Curtain Wall
    Overview of seismic curtain wall member
    Peak Stress and Point according to Axial Direction

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