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ISSN : 2093-5145(Print)
ISSN : 2288-0232(Online)
Journal of the Korean Society for Advanced Composite Structures Vol.11 No.5 pp.53-59

Enhancement of the Complex Performance of Dredged Soil Using a Developed Electromagnetic Field System

Syed Qasim Shabbir1, Mosbeh R. Kaloop2, Eunsung Kim3, Jong Wan Hu4
1M.Sc. Student, Department of Civil and Environment Engineering, Incheon National University, Incheon, Korea
2Researcher, Incheon Disaster Prevention Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon, Korea
3Researcher, Nada Construction Inc., Seoul, Korea
4Associate Professor, Department of Civil and Environment Engineering, Incheon National University, Incheon, Korea

본 논문에 대한 토의를 2020년 11월 30일까지 학회로 보내주시면 2020년 12월호에 토론결과를 게재하겠습니다.

Corresponding author:Hu, Jong-Wan Department of Civil and Environment Engineering, Incheon National University, 119 Academy-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, Korea. Tel: +82-32-835-8463, Fax: +82-32-835-0775 E-mail:
August 14, 2020 August 23, 2020 August 27, 2020


Broad field estimations on a digging installation with long pipelines have demonstrated that thickness oscillations in slurry streams produced in a framework channel are not smooth, which influences pump effectiveness. Thus, this investigation concentrated on assessing a structured framework dependent on the electromagnetic field (EMF). The EMF is utilized to decrease liquid opposition and reduce soil thickness. Additionally, quickening the checking framework was introduced to gage pump effectiveness. An exploratory investigation intended to assess the framework was performed for an absolute channel length of 300 m and an 11 kW pump. Kaolinite and fly debris were utilized to simulate the slurry stream of dug soil. The outcomes show that the EMF expands the stream speed of dug soil and builds the pump effectiveness by 94.8%.

전자기 필드 시스템을 활용한 준설토의 복합 성능의 강화

사이드 카심 사비르1, 모스베흐 칼롭2, 김 은성3, 허 종완4
1인천대학교 도시환경공학부 석사과정
2인천대학교 인천방재연구센터 연구원
3㈜나다 건설 연구원
4인천대학교 도시환경공학부 부교수


긴 파이프 라인 굴착 시설에 대한 광범위한 현장 평가는 예상과 달리 프레임 채널에서 생성된 진흙 흐름의 두께 변 동이 평활하지 않아 펌프의 효율성에 영향을 미쳤다. 따라서 본 연구는 액체 저항을 줄이고 토양의 두께를 줄이는 데 사용되는 전자기장(EMF)에 의하여 구조화된 프레임워크를 평가하는 데 중점을 두었다. 또한, 펌프의 효율성을 평가하기 위하여 빠른 점 검이 가능한 프레임워크가 도입하였다. 300m의 절대 채널 길이와 11Kw의 펌프 강도를 사용하여 프레임 워크를 평가하기 위한 탐색적 연구를 수행하였다. 마찬가지로, 카올리나이트와 미분탄은 굴착된 진흙 흐름을 재현하기 위하여 사용하였다. EMF가 굴 착토의 유속을 증대시키고 펌프의 효율성을 94.8%까지 구축함을 보인다.


    The dredged materials are commonly transported using pipelines systems from the dredger to the disposal or work sites. The transportation of dredged material such as sand or clay through a pressurized pipeline must be mixed with water. This mixture of solids and water is known as slurry. Transportation of the dredged material via pipeline is therefore referred to as slurry transportation. The unsteady state of slurry transportation has effects on the velocity flow along the conveying pipeline (Matousek, 1995;Randall et al., 2011). In addition, the flow velocity, practical size and the distribution of slurry over the cross-section of pipes has effects on the design of the pipeline of dredged materials (Barber et al., 2012). Herein, during hydraulic transport, slurry behaves as a carrier fluid for other dredged material because particles beneath a certain size forming a homogeneous load (Wilson et al., 2006) and the particles of less than 40 μm behave in this way; for slurry of this particle size fraction, the relationship between pressure head and flow velocity is that of a fluid (Matoušek, 2004). More details for the effectiveness of particle size fraction on slurry flow velocity and pressure head can be found in Kim et al. (2016 and 2015).

    Herein, it should be mentioned that the flow becomes heterogeneous when the particle size increases to medium sand (Tuzson, 1984;Wilson et al., 2006). In this case, concentration is non-uniform increases, and the mixture no longer behaves as fluid in theory. Following this transition, when particle size exceeds that supportable by drag and lift forces, deposition occurs. The associated regime is known as the moving bed regime, and this may have occurred a sedimentation phenomenon in case the head of the pump is low. However, the soil density should be changed or decreased the size of transformed particles through the pipes, especially with long pipelines cases.

    The electromagnetic field (EMF) is a method that can be used to change the properties of dredged soil density (Yoon and Kim, 2016). Kim et al. (2015) utilized EMF to examine the effect of magnetic wave on the efficiency of 500m dredging soil transport length of pipe, and it was found that the system is improved by 30%. Furthermore, Kim et al. (2015) concluded that, with EMF, it would be possible to transport the dredged materials up to 15km long with a low number of pumps. In addition, slurry transport quality is seen improved with dredged time works (Kim et al., 2016;Oliveira et al., 2017).

    To evaluate the EMF performance on the flow characteristics, the velocity of slurry flow is measured and evaluated. In order to check the pump efficiency, the frequency of acceleration measurements is also assessed. In the current study, the wavelet analysis is used to estimate the frequency and remove the dynamic noises of the measurements (Labat, 2005;Rioul and Vetterli, 1991;Torrence and Compo, 1998). However, this study investigates the use of the EMF and monitoring system in decreasing the power of pumps that required for the dredged soils and estimate the pump efficiency based on measurements.


    The experimental work is carried out in this study to evaluate the performance of the model designed for the Sihwa dredging and reclamation site in the west seashore in Korea. The pipeline (300m) and EMF systems are presented in Fig. 1. The hopper and pump (11Kw) positions and pipeline positions length and measurement points of the flow are presented in Fig. 1.a. The fluid linear machine is used as an EMF generator (Fig. 1.b). Also, Figure (1.c,f and g) presents the pump and pump monitoring system for the efficiency assessment. Fig. 1.d illustrates the pressure sensors to measure the flow pressure head. Furthermore, the ultrasonic velocity profiler (UVP) is used to measure the velocity of flow.

    To design a slurry flow, the Kaolinite and fly ash materials were used and mixed with water to make a heavy flow system. The mixture of 1000% Kaolinite and 600% fly ash were used to assess the flow of slurry in the pipeline. Here, the weight of the Kaolinite and fly ash materials are 1000% and 600% weight of water. Besides 30, 40 and 50Hz pump output were used to press the flow in the pipeline. The UVP was used to analyze the velocity flow, as presented in Fig. 2.a. Fig. 2.a shows that the UVP can effectively measure the velocity of flow and draw the flow profile. This system was used to measure the dynamic performance of the pump. Furthermore, to measure the pump efficiency, the accelerometer monitoring system (Fig. 2.b) was used. The sampling frequency of accelerometer is 2048Hz. Table 1 presents the cases (i.e. positions and descriptions of each case for the monitoring system). The 30 and 40Hz pump inputs were used to examine the pump efficiency.

    Furthermore, the wavelet analysis was used in this study to remove the acceleration noises and extract the dynamic frequency of flow. In this study also, the wavelet package transformation (WPT) was used; more details for the WPT can be found in Kaloop et al. (2018);Li et al. (2003) and Sanderson et al. (2015). The wavelet analysis and evaluation can be summarized and described as follows: (1) transform the measurement residuals to wavelet domain using Daubechies (db) transform; (2) decompose all wavelet coefficients using a design level wavelet packet; (3) apply the threshold to remove the noise, and (4) inverse the de-noised wavelet coefficient to obtain the signals domains. Fig. 3 illustrates the 3-level scale mapping of the signal.


    To study the effectiveness of EMF should be first understood by tracking the velocity changes of flow. Fig. 4 shows the EMF effect on the mix of flow. The EMF can be changed the heterogeneous to homogenous flow. In addition, the sedimentation of practices can be moved easily by using the EMF, as presented in Fig. 4. Furthermore, the flow velocity can be increased by using the EMF system.

    In the current study, two types of materials added to water to make the slurry flow, the Kaolinite and fly ash were mixed by 1000 and 600%. The maximum velocities (Vmax) were measured as presented in Table 2. In addition, the velocity along pipeline was calculated as presented in Fig. 5. From Table 2, it can be seen that the velocity of flow is increased by using EMF in the system for the two kinds of materials that utilized. With using pump output 30Hz, it can be seen that the velocity of flow was increased by 5.5% and 7.6% with 1000 and 600% of Kaolinite mixtures, respectively; while the velocity of flow was increased by 2.6% and 13.3% with 1000 and 600% of fly ash mixture, respectively. Furthermore, the average increasing of flow velocities with using three different pump outputs were 3.9% and 4.1% for the Kaolinite with 1000 and 600% mixture, respectively. While the average increasing of velocities of 1000 and 600% mixtures of fly ash are 4.9% and 6.9%, respectively. It can be seen in Fig. 5 also that the sedimentation of flow was decreased by using the EMF system. However, it can be concluded that the EMF system can be increased the efficiency of flow velocity by 5% in average.

    In addition, the pressure of flow was measured for the Kanolinite mixture, and the results were presented in Fig. 6. From Fig. 6, it can be seen that the pressure was decreased by using EMF with pump outputs 30, 40 and 50Hz. Furthermore; the pressure was decreased by 7% with 30Hz pump.

    Meanwhile, to assess the performance of pump, the acceleration measurements are required also to be evaluated and assessed. The wavelet analysis first should be used to remove the dynamic noises and then the frequency can be calculated. Fig. 7 illustrates the wavelet analysis performance for the measurements signals of sensor 1 top, as presented in Fig. 1.f and g, with rotation speed 40/sec. From this figure, it can be seen that the wavelet appear as good tool to remove the dynamic noises.

    Fig. 8 shows the frequency contents of acceleration measurements of pump outputs 30 and 40Hz. Fig. 8.a presents the frequencies and powers of the pump with output and rotation speed 30Hz. From this figure, it can be noticed that the first frequency content is 27.48 Hz, and the maximum power is shown at 294.4Hz. This indicates that the power efficiency of the pump is saved by 91.6%. In addition, the maximum power has occurred at maximum frequency; this reveals that the wavelet can be used to detect the frequency modes noisy pump data. Furthermore, Fig. 8.b demonstrates the frequencies and powers of the pump with output and rotation speed of 40Hz. From this figure, it can be shown that the dominant frequency of this test is 102.1Hz, and the first mode of frequency is 39.26Hz; it means that the efficiency of the pump is 98.15%. Here, the dominant frequencies of 30Hz and 40Hz cases are shown at 294.4Hz and 102.1Hz; this reveals that the contaminated noises of acceleration pump are affected the accuracy of wavelet for estimating the power of pumps. From these results, it can be concluded that the EMF system can be used to improve, by 94.8% on average, the velocity of slurry flow and increase the efficiency of pump which can save the power required.


    This study investigates the improvement of the flow of slurry transportation and increases the efficiency of using pumps for dredged soil projects. The electromagnetic field (EMF) was used to improve the flow speed, and that depended to somehow on the pumps efficiencies. The structural health monitoring was used to assess the power saving of pumps based on acceleration sensors. Furthermore, the experimental study for the system from 300m pipeline and 11Kw pump power was used to study the EMF effects. Two materials were mixed to make a slurry contents that are Kanolinite and fly ash by 1000 and 600% mixture.

    The results show that the EMF has effects on the flow velocity of slurry. In maximum velocity of flow is increased by 5% and the pressure required is decreased by 7%. In addition, the sedimentation of slurry particles was decreased by using the EMF system. In the other hand, the wavelet analysis was used to improve the acceleration measurements signals, and it was found that the wavelet was a good tool that can be used to denoise the signals with high sampling frequencies. In addition, the efficiency of the frequency input of pumps was improved by 91.6 to 98.15%. However, the EMF system can generally be used to improve the efficiency of dredged soils systems.


    This work is supported by the Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement (KAIA) grant funded by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (Grant 20NANO-B156177-01).


    Laboratory Pipeline, EMF and Pump System and Monitoring
    (a) UVP Flow Property Analysis and (b) Acceleration Monitoring System
    The WPT Mapping of the Wavelet Decomposition
    Flow Change by EMF
    EMF Effective on the Surry Flow for the (a) Kaolinite and (b) Fly Ash
    Pressure of Flow with and without EMF
    Acceleration Measurements (a) before and (b) after Wavelet Denoises
    FFT of Acceleration Measurements for (a) 30 and (b) 40Hz Pump Inputs


    Accelerometer Monitoring System for Pump Efficiency
    The Velocity of Flow with and without EMF Effective (unit: mm/s)


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